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Exempel på vetenskapligt validerad och publicerad forskning kring hur elektromagnetiska fält (EMF) och radiofrekvent elektromagnetisk strålning (RF EMR) från exempelvis mobiltelefoner, viagra approved kan påverka reproduktionen hos djur och människa.

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Sammanställning: Balanspunkten www.balanspunkten.info 17 sept 2010

Figure: Possible pathways for the mechanism of damage caused to spermatozoa by electromagnetic waves
(EMW) emitted from cell phones.

Källa: Dr Ashok Agarwal et al, approved Cell phones and male infertility: dissecting the relationshipRBM Online – Vol 15. No 3. 2007 266-
270 Reproductive BioMedicine Online; www.rbmonline.com/Article//2923 on web 25 June 2007

Study Quotes

1. Effects of mobile phone radiation on serum testosterone in Wistar albino rats
Meo et al 2010.pdf, 169kB
Imran MB. Saudi Med J. 2010 Aug;30(8):869-73.
PMID: 20714683 [PubMed – in process]

Conclusion: Long-term exposure to mobile phone radiation leads to reduction in serum testosterone levels. Testosterone is a primary male gender hormone and any change in the normal levels may be devastating for reproductive and general health.

2. Effects of exposure to a mobile phone on testicular function and structure in adult
rabbit Salama et al 2008.pdf, 193kB
Int J Androl. 2010 Feb;33(1):88-94.
Epub 2009 Dec 2. PMID: 19076254 [PubMed]

Conclusion: Low intensity pulsed radio frequency emitted by a conventional mobile phone kept in the standby position could affect the testicular function and structure in the adult rabbit. Letter to the editor by Lerchl et al: […] the emissions were mainly in the kHz range and they originate from the phones’ internal electronics (e.g. display processor, switching power supply).

3. Cell phones and male infertility: dissecting the relationship.
Deepinder et al 2007.pdf, 231kB
Reprod Biomed Online. 2007 Sep;15(3):266-70.
PMID: 17854521 [PubMed]

Conclusion: Although previous studies suggested a role of cell phone use in male infertility, the mode of action of RF EMF emitted from cell phones on the male reproductive system is still unclear. RF EMF can affect the reproductive system via an RF EMF-specific effect,
thermal molecular effect or combination of both. Studies performed on human males are scarce and therefore further studies with a careful design are needed to determine the effect of cell phone use on male-fertilizing potential.

4. Effect of cell phone usage on semen analysis in men attending infertility clinic: an observational study
Agarwal et al 2008.pdf, 182kB
Fertil Steril. 2008 Jan;89(1):124-8. Epub 2007
May 4. PMID: 17482179 [PubMed]

Conclusion: Use of cell phones decrease the semen quality in men by decreasing the sperm count, motility, viability, and normal morphology. The decrease in sperm parameters was dependent on the duration of daily exposure to cell phones and independent of the initial semen quality.

5. Electromagnetic fields produced by incubators influence heart rate variability in newborns
Bellieni et al 2008.pdf, 140kB
Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed. 2008
Jul;93(4):F298-301. Epub 2008 May 1.
PMID: 18450804 [PubMed]

Conclusion: EMFs produced by incubators influence newborns’ HRV (heart rate variability), showing an influence on their autonomous nervous system. More research is needed to assess possible long-term consequences, since premature newborns may be exposed to these high EMFs for months.

6. Mouse early embryos obtained by natural breeding or in vitro fertilization display a differential sensitivity to extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields
Beraldi et al 2003.pdf, 139kB
Mutat Res. 2003 Jul
PMID: 12834765 [PubMed]

Conclusion: We found that ELF-MF (extremely low frequency magnetic fields) exposure causes a small yet significant (P <0.05) decrease in the survival rate of NB-derived embryos at the latest stages of preimplantation development, i.e. the eight cell-toblastocyst transition. In embryos exposed to the highest field intensity (220_T), the effect became apparent somewhat earlier. When IVF-derived embryos were exposed to ELF-MF, the reduction in the rate of embryo survival was more pronounced and the difference from controls was more significant (P <0.01).

Moreover, the decreased survival rate in IVF embryos became apparent as early as the first cleavage and persisted throughout pre-implantation. These results suggest that IVF-derived embryos are more sensitive than NB-generated embryos to ELFMF, and that this sensitivity occurs earlier in development.

Fig. 1. Morphological features of in vitro cultured embryos at the blastocyst stage in non-exposed control cultures (upper panel), IVF-derived cultures exposed to 50 Hz, 60 _T (middle panel) and NB-derived cultures exposed to 50 Hz, 220 _T (lower panel). No morphological alterations are seen among viable ELF-MF-exposed embryos. Embryo cultures were observed using a 5× objective (bar = 50 _m).

7. Effects of intrauterine and extrauterine exposure to GSM-like radiofrequency on distortion product otoacoustic emissions in infant male rabbits
Budak et al 2009.pdf, 363kB
Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2009
Mar;73(3):391-9. Epub 2008 Dec 23.
PMID: 19108901 [PubMed]

Conclusion: Harmful effects of RF are mainly observed as a decrease in DPOAE amplitudes at 4.0—6.0 kHz during extrauterine exposure in infancy. During the intrauterine period, the water content of the middle and inner ear and amnion fluid may play a protective role. Therefore, children must be protected from RF exposure. The use of mobile phones at short distances from the ear of the infants should be avoided because of the lower thickness of the anatomical structure in infancy.

8. Effect of high-frequency electromagnetic fields on trophoblastic connexins
Cervellati et al 2009.pdf,867kB
Reprod Toxicol. 2009 Jul; 28(1):59-65. Epub 2009 Apr 5.
PMID: 19490996 [PubMed]

Conclusion: HF-EMF exposure significantly and selectively increased Cx40 and Cx43, without altering protein expression. Nevertheless, Cx40 and Cx43 lost their punctuate fluorescence within the cell membrane, becoming diffuse afterHF-EMF exposure. Electron microscopy evidenced a sharp decrease in intercellular gap junction-like structures. This study is the first to indicate that exposure of extravillous trophoblast to GSM-217 Hz signals can modify Cx gene expression, Cx protein localization and cellular ultrastructure.

9. Influence of Electromagnetic Fields Emitted by GSM-900 Cellular Telephones on the Circadian Patterns of Gonadal, Adrenal and
Pituitary Hormones in Men

Djeridane et al 2008.pdf, 490kB
Radiat Res. 2008 Mar;169(3):337-43.
PMID: 18302481 [PubMed]

Funded by Motorola

Conclusion: Our data show that the 900 MHz EMF exposure, at  least under our experimental conditions, does not
appear to affect endocrine functions in men. Though our experiment was performed with a long duration of exposure, it cannot be ruled out that
repetitive exposures for a year or more may have effects on humans, especially on young teenagers who use phones for several hours per day.

10. The effect of pulsed 900-MHz GSM mobile phone radiation on the acrosome reaction, head morphometry and zona binding of human spermatozoa
Falzone et al 2010.pdf, 182kB
Int J Androl. 2010 Mar 7. [Epub ahead of print]
PMID: 20236367 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

Conclusion: This study concludes that although RF-EMF exposure did not adversely affect the acrosome reaction, it had a
significant effect on sperm morphometry. In addition, a significant decrease in sperm binding to the hemizona was observed. These results could
indicate a significant effect of RF-EMF on sperm fertilization potential.

11. Relationships between occupational exposure and cancer of the testis
Faroy-Menciere & Deschamps 2002.pdf, 42kB
Ann Med Interne (Paris). 2002 Mar;153(2):89-96.
PMID: 12037490 [PubMed]

Conclusion: A significantly increased risk of testicular cancer is associated with occupations in the agricultural, tannery and mechanical industries. Consistent associations with painting, mining, plastic and metal working, and occupational use of hand-held radar have been observed. Because of the small number of exposed subjects in some studies, results have been spurious in many cases and require further analysis.

12. Genotoxic Effects of Extremely Low Frequency (ELF) Magnetic Fields (MF) Evaluated by the Tradescantia-MicronucleusAssay
Fatigoni et al 2005.pdf, 114kB
Environ Toxicol. 2005 Dec;20(6):585-91.
PMID: 16302171 [PubMed]

Conclusion: Exposure of Tradescantia (clone # 4430) inflorescences to the ELF-MF, at a flux density (B) corresponding to 1 mT, for 1, 6, and 24 h resulted in a time-dependent increase in MN frequency. The results indicate that a 50 Hz MF of 1 mT field strength is genotoxic in the Trad-MN bioassay and suggest that this assay may be suitable as a biomonitor for detecting the genotoxicity of ELF-MF in the field.

13. Is there a relationship between cell phone use and semen quality?
Fejes et al 2005.pdf, 325kB
Arch Androl. 2005 Sep-Oct;51(5):385-93
PMID: 16087567 [PubMed]

Conclusion: This study was conducted to determine a possible relationship between regular cell phone use and different human semen attributes. A total of 371 were included in the study. The duration of possession and the daily transmission time correlated negatively with the proportion of rapid progressive motile sperm (r = – 0.12 and r = -0.19, respectively), and positively with the proportion of slow progressive motile sperm (r = 0.12
and r = 0.28, respectively). The low and high transmitter groups also differed in the proportion of rapid progressive motile sperm (48.7% vs. 40.6%). The prolonged use of cell phones may have negative effects on the sperm motility characteristics.

14. A cross-sectional study on nonionizing radiation to male fertility
Ding XP et al
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi. 2004
PMID: 15061945 [PubMed]

Conclusion: People working on radar who suffered from non-ionization for long time and had bad radar shield protection would show semi-clinical injury on sperm and bad semen quality. However, it did not affect the male reproductive function. It was necessary to reinforce the protection of non-ionization and to improve male reproductive health care of people working on radar.

15. Growing concern over the safety of using mobile phones and male fertility
Derias EM et al
Arch Androl. 2006 Jan-Feb;52(1):9-14.
PMID: 16338863 [PubMed]

Conclusion: There are growing concerns about the possible hazards of electromagnetic waves emitted by mobile phones on human health. One of the biggest concerns is their possible association with increased risk of cancer and their possible effects on cellular DNA. Electromagnetic waves can inflict their results through both thermal and non-thermal effects. There are many animal studies that show that electromagnetic waves have a wide range of damaging effects on the male reproductive system and sperm parameters. However, similar studies are quite limited in humans, and the results of animal studies should be interpreted with caution when considering their application to humans. Large controlled studies are required before confirming such possible effects on male fertility.

16. Effects of 60 Hz electromagnetic field exposure on testicular germ cell apoptosis in mice
Lee JS et al
Asian J Androl. 2004 Mar;6(1):29-34.
PMID: 15064831 [PubMed]

Conclusion: Continuous exposure to ELF EMF may induce testicular germ cell apoptosis in mice.

17. Effect of electromagnetic field exposure on spermatogenesis and sexual activity
Shafik A.
PMID: 15685361 [PubMed] (Free article)

Conclusion: The polyester containing pants generated ESPs, which seem to create `electrostatic fields’ in the scrotum and the penile structures, that presumably induce diminished spermatogenesis and sexual activity.

18. Long-term exposure to low intensity microwave radiation affects male reproductivity
Yan SW et al
Zhonghua Nan Ke Xue. 2007 Apr;13(4):306-8.
PMID: 17491260 [PubMed]

Conclusion: Long-term exposure to low intensity microwave radiation evidently increased the sexual dysfunction rate and decreased natural pregnancy rate in men.

19. Mobile phone radiation induces reactive oxygen species production and DNA damage in human spermatozoa in vitro
De Iuliis GN et al
PLoS One. 2009 Jul
PMID: 19649291
PMCID: PMC2714176 (Free article)

Conclusions: RF-EMR in both the power density and frequency range of mobile phones enhances mitochondrial reactive oxygen species generation by human spermatozoa, decreasing the motility and vitality of these cells while stimulating DNA base adduct formation and, ultimately DNA fragmentation. These findings have clear implications for the safety of extensive mobile phone use by males of reproductive
age, potentially affecting both their fertility and the health and wellbeing of their offspring.

Figure 1. RF-EMR exposure decreases motility and vitality of human sperm while also inducing intracellular ROS.